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Netherlands Profile and History


The Netherlands is a component country forming part of the kingdom of Netherlands, which is situated principally in the North western part of Europe and in the Caribbean Sea with a various islands. The Mainland Netherlands is bordered by the North Sea in the north and west direction, by Germany in the east. The kingdom shares the maritime borders with nations like Germany, Belgium, and the United Kingdom.

Geographically, Netherlands is a low lying nation; below sea level nearly 21% of its people 25% of its region is situated. Half a portion of its land mass is located at one meter less above sea level.

The estuary of three major rivers forms a major part of Netherlands. The rivers along with the tributaries form the delta of Rhine-Meuse-Scheldt. Major part of the nation is flat with the exception being the number of low hills in the middle part and the foot hills lying in the far eastern part.

Netherlands is one of the primary nations with an elected parliament. It is also the member of the NATO, OECD, EU, and WTO. Along with the Luxembourg and Belgium, it constitutes the economic union of Benelux. The nation is the host to 5 international courts of justice and Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons. The five international courts are the International Court of Justice, the Permanent Court of Arbitration, the International Criminal Court, and the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, and the Special Tribunal for Lebanon.

Capital: Amsterdam

Independence: 26 July 1581 (declared), but was recognized only on 30 January 1648

Language: Dutch (official), other regional languages (recognized) are Papiamento (in Bonaire), Frisian (in Friesland), and English (in Saba and Sint Eustatius)

Currency: Euro (€), in Caribbean Netherlands US dollar ($)

Religion: Protestants (44.3%), Catholics (38.7%), Muslims (5%) rest of the religions are Jews, Buddhist and Sikhs.

Standard Time Zone: UTC/GMT +1 hour


Netherland was a constituent of the seventeen provinces (approximately covering the present day Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg, a major portion of North of France) under the rule of Spanish king and the holy Roman Emperor, Charles V.
Eighty years war or the Dutch Independence war (1568–1648) started as a Seventeen provinces’ revolt against the ruler of Spain, Phillip II. In the year 1579, half of the northern seventeen provinces made a treaty called the Union of Utrecht, in which they took a decision to assist each other against the army of Spain. In the year 1581, Act of Abjuration (a declaration of Independence) was adopted by the Northern Province as they officially removed Philip II of Spain from the post of the ruling king of Northern provinces.

Queen Elizabeth I of England supported the Dutch resistance against the Spain ruler, and she sent a British army to provide assistance to the Dutch struggle against Spain. Under the commandership of the 1st Earl of Leicester, Robert Dudley, an army comprising of 7,600 English solders landed in Netherlands. However the English assistance to the Dutch did not give any fruitful results, In spite of Robert Dudley coming with another additional army, the war got prolonged war, as the Spanish army was strong enough and they dragged the war as much they could. Finally in 1648, under the rule of the Spanish king Philip IV, a treaty called the Peace of Münster, in which the independence of the Dutch was recognized.

Dutch Republic 1581–1795

Subsequent to Independence, a confederation called the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands was formed by the provinces of the provinces of Zeeland, Holland, Friesland, Groningen, Overijssel, Utrecht, and Gelre. All these are autonomous province having their individual government.

Second World War (1940 -45)

Netherlands planned to remain neutral in the Second World War, however on 10th May 1940; it was invaded and overrun by the Nazi forces. The Nazis captured nearly 100,000Duthc Jews, and were sent to the concentration camp.

From 1945 till now.

Subsequent to the war, the economy of Netherlands flourished by having an era of impartiality and also established healthy relationship with the adjacent states.

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